CA Civ Code Section 51.9


A person is liable in a cause of action for sexual harassment under this section when the plaintiff proves all of the following elements:


There is a business, service, or professional relationship between the plaintiff and defendant. Such a relationship may exist between a plaintiff and a person, including, but not limited to, any of the following persons:


Physician, psychotherapist, or dentist. For purposes of this section, “psychotherapist” has the same meaning as set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) of Section 728 of the Business and Professions Code.


Attorney, holder of a master’s degree in social work, real estate agent, real estate appraiser, accountant, banker, trust officer, financial planner loan officer, collection service, building contractor, or escrow loan officer.


Executor, trustee, or administrator.


Landlord or property manager.




A relationship that is substantially similar to any of the above.


The defendant has made sexual advances, solicitations, sexual requests, demands for sexual compliance by the plaintiff, or engaged in other verbal, visual, or physical conduct of a sexual nature or of a hostile nature based on gender, that were unwelcome and pervasive or severe.


There is an inability by the plaintiff to easily terminate the relationship.


The plaintiff has suffered or will suffer economic loss or disadvantage or personal injury, including, but not limited to, emotional distress or the violation of a statutory or constitutional right, as a result of the conduct described in paragraph (2).


In an action pursuant to this section, damages shall be awarded as provided by subdivision (b) of Section 52.


Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit application of any other remedies or rights provided under the law.


The definition of sexual harassment and the standards for determining liability set forth in this section shall be limited to determining liability only with regard to a cause of action brought under this section.
Last Updated

Aug. 19, 2023

§ 51.9’s source at ca​.gov