CA Penal Code Section 422.56

For purposes of this title, the following definitions shall apply:


“Association with a person or group with these actual or perceived characteristics” includes advocacy for, identification with, or being on the ground owned or rented by, or adjacent to, any of the following: a community center, educational facility, family, individual, office, meeting hall, place of worship, private institution, public agency, library, or other entity, group, or person that has, or is identified with people who have, one or more of those characteristics listed in the definition of “hate crime” under paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive, of subdivision (a) of Section 422.55.


“Disability” includes mental disability and physical disability as defined in Section 12926 of the Government Code.


“Gender” means sex, and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. “Gender expression” means a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior whether or not stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.


“In whole or in part because of” means that the bias motivation must be a cause in fact of the offense, whether or not other causes also exist. When multiple concurrent motives exist, the prohibited bias must be a substantial factor in bringing about the particular result. There is no requirement that the bias be a main factor, or that the crime would not have been committed but for the actual or perceived characteristic. This subdivision does not constitute a change in, but is declaratory of, existing law under In re M.S. (1995) 10 Cal.4th 698 and People v. Superior Court (Aishman) (1995) 10 Cal.4th 735.


“Nationality” includes citizenship, country of origin, and national origin.


“Race or ethnicity” includes ancestry, color, and ethnic background.


“Religion” includes all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice and includes agnosticism and atheism.


“Sexual orientation” means heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality.


“Victim” includes, but is not limited to, a community center, educational facility, entity, family, group, individual, office, meeting hall, person, place of worship, private institution, public agency, library, or other victim or intended victim of the offense.
Last Updated

Aug. 19, 2023

§ 422.56’s source at ca​.gov